Friday, October 30, 2009

A Grave Warning!

Over 150 years ago a brilliant man laid down principles of education, of pedagogy - indeed, of epistemology perhaps - and touched on the structure underlying Subsidiarity, of right relation, of the order of all beings created by God. In his great work, he gave a severe warning to academics and educators, whether Catholic or otherwise - to all those who refuse to be catholic:
I have said that all branches of knowledge are connected together, because the subject-matter of knowledge is intimately united in itself, as being the acts and the work of the Creator. Hence it is that the Sciences, into which our knowledge may be said to be cast, have multiplied bearings one on another, and an internal sympathy, and admit, or rather demand, comparison and adjustment. They complete, correct, balance each other. This consideration, if well-founded, must be taken into account, not only as regards the attainment of truth, which is their common end, but as regards the influence they exercise upon those whose education consists in the study of them. I have said already, that to give undue prominence to one is to be unjust to another; to neglect or supersede these is to divert those from their proper object. It is to unsettle the boundary lines between science and science, to disturb their action, to destroy the harmony which binds them together. Such a proceeding will have a corresponding effect when introduced into a place of education. There is no science but tells a different tale, when viewed as a portion of a whole, from what it is likely to suggest when taken by itself, without the safeguard, as I may call it, of others.


I observe, then, that, if you drop any science out of the circle of knowledge, you cannot keep its place vacant for it; that science is forgotten; the other sciences close up, or, in other words, they exceed their proper bounds, and intrude where they have no right. For instance, I suppose, if ethics were sent into banishment, its territory would soon disappear, under a treaty of partition, as it may be called, between law, political economy, and physiology; what, again, would become of the province of experimental science, if made over to the Antiquarian Society; or of history, if surrendered out and out to Metaphysicians? The case is the same with the subject-matter of Theology; it would be the prey of a dozen various sciences, if Theology were put out of possession; and not only so, but those sciences would be plainly exceeding their rights and their capacities in seizing upon it. They would be sure to teach wrongly, where they had no mission to teach at all. The enemies of Catholicism ought to be the last to deny this: - for they have never been blind to a like usurpation, as they have called it, on the part of theologians; those who accuse us of wishing, in accordance with Scripture language, to make the sun go round the earth, are not the men to deny that a science which exceeds its limits falls into error.


If then, Gentlemen, I now resist such a course of acting as unphilosophical, what is this but to do as men of Science do when the interests of their own respective pursuits are at stake? If they certainly would resist the divine who determined the orbit of Jupiter by the Pentateuch, why am I to be accused of cowardice or illiberality, because I will not tolerate their attempt in turn to theologize by means of astronomy? And if experimentalists would be sure to cry out, did I attempt to install the Thomist philosophy in the schools of astronomy and medicine, why may not I, when Divine Science is ostracized, and La Place, or Buffon, or Humboldt, sits down in its chair, why may not I fairly protest against their exclusiveness, and demand the emancipation of Theology?

[John Henry Cardinal Newman, The Idea of a University, V.1, V.2, IV.14]

Yes: Si quis habet aures audiendi audiat!

Friday, October 23, 2009

Not gone...

I've been busy, getting various new things done, and turning some old things into new things. Strange to say, I started speaking with a LISP every so often, which was a lot of fun, and I've done some chemical preparations for Advent. I hope I will soon be able to get back to more of the very important excerpts from Baruffaldi's writing, and perhaps some new things too...

Meanwhile you can read about Long Division over at the ACS blogg.

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

On Making Lustral Water: Part 2

We proceed to excerpts from Baruffaldo's Ad Rituale Romanum Commentaria on the Making of Lustral Water, also known as "Holy Water".

Antequam verò ad explicationem Textus deveniamus, necessarium duco, ut nomen explicemus hujus Aquae, & quare Lustralis vocetur.

Ab antiquis, & quidem à Gentilium ritu ducitur haec Aqua, quae ideo Lustralis dicebatur, quia à Sacerdote, purgationis causa aspergebatur super Victimas, & supra Populum Templa ingredientem; ideoque purgandi, seu expiandi vim habet haec vox. Hinc Ovid, 3, de Pont. El. 2.
Spargit Aqua captus Lustrali Graja Sacerdos.
Qui Ritus postea ab Ecclesia sanctificatus fuit, usque ab ejus exordiis, nam (quidquid dicant nonnulli Authores, quòd hujus Aquae benedictae inventor fuerit Alexander Papa I.) clarè Marsilius Columna in sua Hydragiologia 2. cap. 2 à num 38. demonstrat, verum Authorem debere cognosci S. Matthaeum Apostolum, à quo deinde caeteri Apostoli, & subinde Episcopi suscepere, Durant. l.2. c.21.
[Baruffaldo ARRC 260]

Now, my rough translation:
Before we come to the actual explanation of the Text, I consider a necessary item, that the name of this Water we may unfold, and why it is called Lustral.

From ancient time, & by a certain rita of the Gentiles this water is produced, for therefore Lustral is said, because it is sprinkled on the Victims & on the People coming into the Temple by the Priest for purification; and therefore this word [Lustral] has the sense of purifying, or expiating. Thus Ovid, [reference]
The Greek Priest scatters Water, understood as Lustral.
Afterwards, this ritual was sanctified by the Church, continually from its beginning, for (whatever some Authorities say, that the inventor of this blessed Water was Pope Alexander I) clearly Marsilius Columna in his [reference] demonstrates, the true Author ought to be known to be St. Matthew the Apostle, from whom thereafter the other Apostles, & continually the Bishops maintained. Durant. [ref]

Friday, October 09, 2009

RR: The Order for Making Holy Water

For future reference in our discussion, I here post the ritual for making Holy Water from the Roman Ritual. (This edition 1898, editio sexta post typicam as I do not have more recent ones available presently.) I will provide a translation later.


Diebus Dominicis, et quandocumque opus fuerit, praeparato sale et aqua munda benedicenda in ecclesia, vel in sacristia, Sacerdos superpelliceo, et stola violacea indutus, primo dicit:

V. Adjutórium nostrum in nómine Dómini.
V. Qui fecit coelum et terram.

2. Deinde absolute incipit Exorcismum salis.

Exorcízo te, creatúra salis, per Deum + vivum, per Deum + verum, per Deum + sanctum, per Deum, qui te per Eliséum Prophétam in aquam mitti jussit, ut sanarétur sterílitas aquae: ut efficiáris sal exorcizátum in salútem credéntium; et sis ómnibus suméntibus te sánitas ánimae et córporis: et effúgiat, atque discédat a loco, in quo aspérsum fúeris, omnis phantásia, et nequítia, vel versútia diabólicae fraudis, omnísque spíritus immúndus, adjurátus per eum, qui ventúrus est judicáre vivos et mórtuos, et saéculum per ignem.
R. Amen.


Imménsam cleméntiam tuam, omnípotens aetérne Deum, humíliter implorámus, ut hanc creatúram salis, quam in usum géneris humáni tribuísti, bene|dícere, et sancti+ficáre tua pietáte dignéris: ut sit ómnibus suméntibus salus mentis et córporis; et quidquid ex eo tactum, vel respérsum fúerit, cáreat omni immundítia, omníque impugnatióne spirituális nequítiae. Per Dóminum nostrum.
R. Amen.

Exorcismus aquae, et dicitur absolute.

Exorcízo te creatúra aquae, in nómine Dei Patris + omnipoténtis, in nómine Jesu + Christi Fílii ejus Dómini nostri, et in virtúte Spíritus + sancti: ut fias aqua exorcizáta ad effugándam omnem potestátem inimíci, et ipsum inimícum eradicáre et explantáre váleas cum ángelis suis apostáticis, per virtútem ejúsdem Dómini nostri Jesu Christi: qui ventúrus est judicáre vivos et mórtuos, et saéculum per ignem.
R. Amen.

Deus, qui ad salútem humáni géneris, máxima quaeque sacraménta in aquárum substántia condidísti: adésto propítius invocatiónibus nostris, et eleménto huic multímodis purificatiónibus praeparáto, virtútem tuae bene+dictiónis infúnde: ut creatúre tua mystériis tuis sérviens, ad abigéndos daétmones, morbósque pelléndos divínae grátiae sumat efféctum, ut quidquid in dómibus, vel in locis fidélium, haec unda respérserit, cáreat omni immundítia, liberétur a noxa: non illic resídeat spíritus péstilens, non aura corrúmpens: discédant omnes insídae laténtis inimíci, et si quid est, quod aut incolumitáti habitántium ínvidet, aut quiéti, aspersióne hujus aquae effúgiat; ut salúbritas per invocatiónnem sancti tui nóminis expetíta, ab ómnibus sit inpugnatiónibus defénsa. Per Dóminum nostrum.
R. Amen.

3. His ter mittat sal in aquam in modum crucis, dicendo semel:

Commíxtio salis et Aquae páriter fiat, in nómine Pa+tris, et Fí+lii, et Spíritus + sancti.
R. Amen.

V. Dóminus vobíscum.
R. Et cum spíritu tuo.
Deus invíctae virtútis auctor, et insuperábilis impérii Rex, ac semper magníficus triuphátor: qui advérsae dominatiónis vires réprimis: qui inimíci rugiéntis saevítiam súperas: qui hostíles nequítias poténter expúgnas: te, Dómine, treméntes et súpplices deprecámur, ac pétimus: ut hanc creatúram salis et aquae dignánter aspícias, benígnus illústres, pietátis tuae rore sanctífices; ut ubicumque fúerit aspérsa, per invocatiónem sancti nóminis tui, omnis infestátio immúndi spíritus abígatur: terrórque venenósi serpéntis procul pellátur: et praeséntia sancti Spíritus nobis misericórdiam tuam poscéntibus, ubique adesse dignétur. Per Dóminum nostru Jesum Christum Fílium tuum: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitáte ejúsdem Spíritus sancti Deus, per ómnia saécula saeculórum.
R. Amen.

4. Post benedictionem aquae Sacerdos Dominicis diebus antequam incipiat Missam, aspergit Altare, deinde se, et ministros, ac populum, prout in Missali praescribitur.

5. Postea Christifideles possunt de ista aqua benedicta in vasculis suis accipere, et secum deferre ad aspergendos aegros, domos, agros, vineas, et alia, et ad eam habendam in cubiculis suis, ut ea quotidie et saepius aspergi possint.

Wednesday, October 07, 2009

On the feast day of Lepanto: a new project!

Yes, I have been busy, and have not had as much time to write here as I might wish. But since today is the feast of the Holy Rosary - the day where we thank God for His aid in the naval battle in 1571 where the Holy League was victorious over the Turks, as recalled in Chesterton's great poem - well, I thought I ought to let you know of a possible new project I am considering.

Some time ago I obtained a copy of Baruffaldo's Commentary on the Roman Ritual, dating to 1730. Other matters I am facing demanded a consultation of this text, in particular the precise ritual for the blessing of "Lustral Water" which we also call "Holy Water". This ritual, in the traditional form, requires salt as well as water, and consists of two exorcisms and three prayers with the blessing - all very interesting, and worth the consideration of technologists and historians as well as those who have theological or spiritual interests in the topic.

I am hardly an expert in Latin, and as far as I know this text has not yet been translated, but I do have dictionaries and grammars, and so I was able to get at least a small hint of the sense both of the prayers and of the commentary. I am all too aware of the time limits I am facing (and you as well) but I think a study of this particular blessing is very timely and worthwhile, and will pay us back.

So I shall at least make a start, and begin with the first paragraph, asking for anyone who really knows Latin to note the flaws and make suggestions. We do not wish take over for the experts, but simply make more people acquainted with the treasures of the Church.

Ordo ad Faciendam Aquam Benedictam,
Titulus Quadragesimus quintus.

Generalibus ita expositis de Benedictionibus, succedunt Benedictiones in specie, quarum prima est illa Aquae lustralis, seu Benedictae, hac potissimum ratione, quia illa una cum signo Crucis utendum esse in omnibus ferè Benedictionibus, praeferibit Ecclesia, etiamsi res benedicenda fuerit priùs Oleo Sacro inuncta, ut videre est in confectatione Calicis, & Patenae. Si itaque fieri volunt caeterae Benedictiones à Sacredote, necesse est, ut paratum priùs habeat hanc Aquam benedictam, cum qua benedictiones suas expediat, ut patet ex ipso Rituali, in quo post Orationes, & Preces adhibitas in benedictionibus, semper subjungitur: Deinde aspergat Aqua benedicta, &c.
In hac benedictione omnem diligentiam, & attentionem adhibere debet Sacerdos, ut ritè, et rectè fiat: quandoque enim Daemones Aquam lustralem nequaquam tiuisse dicuntur, quia non fuerat ritè benedicta, Leo Prax. Archiep. p. 1 c. 6, num. 29 in fine. Verba itaque attentè pronuncianda sunt pro forma hujus Benedictionis: in hoc enim differt materia à forma; quòd si in forma aliquid deest, ampliùs forma non est: materia verò semper eadem manet, ex Philosopho, qui ait: Remota aliqua parte materiae remanet materia, set remota parte formae, recedit forma, Sarnell, Ep. Eccl. T. 4, ep. 18. Praeter diligentiam in adimplendis praescriptis à Rituali in hac Benedictione, debet Sacerdos cavere, ne sit aliqua censura innodatus, quia si cum tali vinculo Benedictionem facere praesumeret, fieret irregularis, Corsett, de Bened. in adden. numer. 3, qui citat Sylvest., & Polacc. P. 2. t. 7. num. 1 in add.

[Baruffaldo, Ad Rituale Romanum Commentaria 259-60]
And now, my rough translation:
Order of making Blessed Water,
Forty-fifth Title.

Thus having given an exposition of Blessings in general, specific Blessings follow, of which the first is that Lustral Water, or Blessed, for this most powerful reason, because that one with the sign of the Cross is used in almost all Blessings, preferred by the Church, even if the thing to be bless will be first anointed with Holy Oil, as to be seen in the making of a Chalice & Paten. If therefore other blessings are desired to be performed by the Priest, it is necessary, that beforehand he has prepared this blessed Water, with which his blessings may be accomplished, that open from the same Ritual, in which after Orations, & Prayers, applied in the blessings, always subjoined: Then he sprinkles it with holy water, &c.

In this blessing the Priest ought to apply all diligence and attention, that it may be done properly and rightly: for whenever the demons are said by no means to fear lustral Water, because it was not rightly blessed, Leo [ref] And thus the words are pronounced attentively for the form of this Blessing: for in this matter differs from form; that if something is lacking in form, even more the form is not: for the matter truly remains the same, as the Philosopher says: Some remote part of matter remains matter, but form departs when part of form is remote, Sarnell, [ref] Besides diligence in performing the prescriptions of the Ritual in this Blessing, the Priest ought to beware, not to do something bound by censure, because if with such chains the Blessing is presumed to be done, it will be done irregularly, Corsett [ref]

You can most likely tell that I found that second paragraph difficult, but I wanted to get it in, because of the line about the Demons fearing Holy Water. I think this point is well worth our consideration, and we shall hear more about this powerful weapon as we proceed into the text.